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Snake bite

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"Which snakes are the most venomous?" This is one of the most frequently asked questions and the hardest to answer. "Most venomous", depends on the type and amount of venom injected and who is injected. As with most things, there are always those who are more sensitive to venoms than others. Also there is a risk of allergic reactions to the venom (or antivenom) . This allergic reaction can sometimes be more life threatening than the venom's toxicity itself. The toxicity of venom depends on the amount and strength of poison it produces. Most toxicity studies are preformed in mice or other laboratory animals, so may be of limited relevance to humans. For a detailed explanation on toxicity testing of venoms, and more tables of venom toxicity, go to Bryan Fry's International Venom and Toxin Database.

In Australia, around half of all deaths from snakebite involve brown snakes. However, this does not necessarily mean that brown snakes are the "most venomous". In fact, on a world scale, deaths from brown snake are negligible compared to deaths from cobras, kraits or vipers (see Published Sources: Cheng & Winkel, 2001). A large number of deaths associated with a specific species of venomous snake is often related to the snake's population size, its habitat and its nature. Those species found in large numbers in highly populated areas are more likely to cause envenomation because of the greater number of possible victims. Also a species which is aggressive and does not move away when approached is more likely to bite than a species which is shy and not aggressive.


Details

The Australian venomous snakes of major medical importance are the:

  • Brown Snakes: Eastern or common brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis), western brown snake or gwardar (P. nuchalis), the dugite (P. affinis)
  • Tiger snakes: Common or mainland tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), black or island tiger snakes (N. ater)
  • Taipan: Common or coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus)
  • Fierce snake: also called small scaled snake, inland taipan, western taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus)
  • Black snakes: Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), king brown snake, also called mulga snake (P. australis), spotted or blue-bellied black snake (P. guttatus), Papuan black snake (P. papuanis)
  • Death Adders: Acanthophis spp.
  • Copperhead: Austrelaps spp.
  • Rough scaled snake: also called Clarence River snake (Tropidechis carinatus)
  • Sea snakes: Family Hydrophiidae, multiple species

Snakes of lesser medical importance include the Stephen's banded snake (Hoplocephalus stephensi), pale-headed snake (H. bitorquatus), broad-headed snake (H. bungaroides), and small-eyed snake (Cryptophis nigrescens)

About Snakebite in Australia
Snake venom is a complex mixture of toxic and non-toxic substances, mostly proteins. Australian snake venoms display neurotoxic (paralysing), pro-coagulant (blood clotting) or anticoagulant (blood thinning) and usually weak cytotoxic (tissue damaging) properties. Some also contain potent myotoxic (muscle damaging) activity. The composition of particular venoms influences the clinical presentation of particular snakebites. Even though not all snakes are venomous it is best, from a first aid point of view, to consider all snakes as dangerous. Sometimes only a small amount or no venom is injected, even if puncture marks are present. As venom is injected quite deeply, little is removed by incision or excision (cutting or sucking). This is a potentially dangerous practice and is to be discouraged. Appropriate first aid for venomous snake bites is the pressure-immobilisation technique.

Antivenom
Antivenoms are produced from antibodies to injected venoms (see venoms and antivenoms). Antivenom is the only definitive treatment for effective bites by venomous Australian snakes. It is suggested that prior to the availability of antivenom, death ensued in approximately 45% of tiger snake envenomations and more than 90% of taipan envenomations. The decision to use antivenom should be based on the patient's history, examination and investigation findings. The type of antivenom used will depend on geographic, clinical and pathologic factors.

Epidemiology of Snakebite in Australia
The true incidence of snakebite in Australia is unknown. Estimates suggest that there may be several thousand cases of snakebite in Australia each year. Of these perhaps 300 require treatment with antivenom. Surveys over recent years suggest a death rate of around 2-4 cases per year on average, although it is likely that the actual number of deaths is somewhat higher than this, due to unrecognised snakebite deaths. The most recent published survey of deaths from snakebite in Australia found a death rate of around 3.2 deaths per year, although the significance of this is not clear as yet. Prior to the development of specific antivenom therapy and improved supportive care, snakebite was associated with a high case fatality rate. Most bites occur during the warmer months, when snakes are more active and people are more likely to venture outdoors and into the bush. Australian studies of snakebite incidence demonstrate a preponderance of males among the victims, possibly related to risk taking behaviour or to occupational exposure. It is also of note that several cases of snakebite death have been associated with alcohol intoxication. Half (six) of the deaths reported in the 1992-4 survey were due to bites from brown snakes, including several sudden or unexpected deaths (within one hour). Tiger snake was the second most common cause of snakebite death, involved in four fatalities.

Most Venomous Snakes
A commonly cited list, from "Australian Animal Toxins" (Sutherland and Tibballs, 1983), is included below, with additional information from the "Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons" by Meier and White (eds) 1995.
SnakeSpeciesLD50 (mg/kg)in saline by subcutaneous injection in miceAverage venom yield (mg)Max venom yield (mg)
Fierce snake (inland taipan, small scaled snake)Oxyuranus microlepidotus0.02544110
Eastern brown snakePseudonaja textilis0.0532-667
Coastal taipanOxyuranus scutellatus0.099120400
Tiger snakeNotechis scutatus0.11835189
Black tiger snakeNotechis ater niger0.131
Beaked sea snakeEnhydrina schistosa0.164
Black Tiger snakeNotechis ater occidentalis0.194
Black Tiger snakeNotechis ater serventyi0.338
Death AdderAcanthophis antarcticus0.40078236
Gwardar(western brown snake)Pseudonaja nuchalis0.47318
Spotted brown snakePseudonaja guttata0.36 (in bovine serum albumin)
Australian copperheadAustrelaps superbus0.562085
CobraNaja naja0.565169610
DugitePseudonaja affinis0.6618
Papuan black snakePseudechis papuanis1.09
Stephens' banded snakeHoplocephalus stephensii1.36
Rough scaled snake (Clarence river snake)Tropidechis carinatus1.36622
King cobraOphiophagus hannah1.80421 
Spotted black snake, blue bellied black snakePseudechis guttatus2.1332
Collett's snake Pseudechis colletti2.3848
Mulga snake (King brown snake)Pseudechis australis2.38180600
Red bellied black snakePseudechis porphyriacus2.524075
Small eyed snakeCryptophis nigrescens2.67
Eastern diamond backed rattlesnakeCrotalus adamanteus11.4410848
Black whip snakeDemansia atra>14.2
Common lancehead viper or Fer-de-lance (in the West Indies)Bothrops atrox>27.8

Although Australian snakes make up most of this list, the number of snake bites in Australia is relatively, small, and the number of deaths much smaller.

Prevention of Snake Bite
At least 95% of snakebites occur on the limbs, with around 75% of these on lower limbs. Many cases of snake bite can be avoided by following these simple rules:

  • Leave snakes alone.
  • Do not attempt to catch or handle snakes.
  • Wear stout shoes and adequate clothing, including long trousers, in 'snake country'. Do not wear sandals or thongs.
  • Never put hands in hollow logs or thick grass or under woodpiles, building material etc without prior inspection.
  • When stepping over logs, carefully inspect the ground on the other side.
  • Keep barns and sheds free of mice and rats as they may attract snakes.
  • Keep grass well cut - particularly in playgrounds, around houses etc.
  • Take care around houses, barns etc on warm nights, as snakes may be active at this time. Use a torch and wear adequate footwear.
  • Educate children in the above precautions.
  • Do not handle snakes whilst intoxicated.
  • Do not rely on visual identification of snakes as non-venomous, as appearances and coloration may vary considerably within species.
 
Related Entries for Snake bite

Related Treatments

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Published Resources

Books

  • N.S.W. Governors' Despatches, vol. 17, Mitchell Library, Sydney, 1830. [ Details... ]
  • Creed Papers: Snake-Bite, Mitchell Library, Sydney, 1884-1895. [ Details... ]
  • Berncastle, J., Australian Snake Bites : Their Treatment andCure. - The Use andAbuse of Tobacco, Mason Firth & Co., Melbourne, 1868. [ Details... ]
  • Calmette, A., Venoms, Venomous Animals and Antivenomous Serum - Therapeutics, Translated from the French by E.E. Austen, John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, London, 1908, xvi + 403 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Campbell, C. H., Snake Bite, Snake Venoms and Venomous Snakes of Australia and New Guinea: An Annotated Bibliography, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, The Unviersity of Sydney, vol. 13, Commonwealth Department of Health, Canberra, 1976, ix + 222 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, Antivenenes, CSL Medical Handbook, Melbourne, 1970, 246 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Covacevich, J., The Snakes of Brisbane, Booklet No. 4, Queensland Museum, Brisbane, 1968, 28? pp. [ Details... ]
  • Department of the Navy, Poisonous Snakes of the World, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1968, vii + 8 plates + 203 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Glauert, L., A Hand-book of the Snakes of Western Australia, Third edn, Western Australian Naturalists' Club, Perth, 1950?, ii + 60 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Hoplet, C. C., Snakes : Curiosities and Wonders of Serpent Life, Griffith and Farran, London. [ Details... ]
  • Kinghorn, J. R. and Kellaway, C. H., The Dangerous Snakes of the South-West Pacific Area, Railway Printing Works, Melbourne, 1943, 43 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Meier, J. and White, J., Handbook of Clinical Toxinology. [ Details... ]
  • Minton, S. A. and Minton, M. R., VenomousReptiles, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1971, 274 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Rendle, R., Notes on Snake Bite. Full Directions, What to Do, What to Avoid, and How to Use the Strychnia Antidote, Together With a Description of Queensland Venomous Snakes and How to Distinguish the Venomous from the Harmless, Pole, Outridge and Co., Brisbane, 1892, 36 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Richards, V., The Land-Marks of Snake-Poison Literature, Being a Review of the More Important Researches Into the Nature of Snake-Poisons, First edn, D.M. Traill, Calcutta, 1885, vii + 191 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Richards, V., The Land-Marks of Snake-Poison Literature, Being a Review of the More Important Researches Into the Nature of Snake-Poisons, Second edn, Thacker Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1886, vii + 191 pp. [ Details... ]
  • The Commission, Report on the Effects 0f Artificial Respiration, Intravenous Injection of Ammonia and Administration of Various Drugs, Etc., in Indian and Australian Snake-Poisoning and the Physiological Chemical and Microscopical Nature of Snake Poisons by the Commission Appointed to Investigate the Subject, Bengal Secretariat Press, Calcutta, 1874, 1xxvii + 77 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., Researches on Australian Venoms, Snake-Bite, Snake Venom and Antivenine, the Poison of the Platypus, the Poison of the Red-Spotted Spider, N.S.W. Department of Public Health, Sydney, 1906. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., Researches on Australian Venoms Snake-Bite, Snake-Venom and Antivenine the Poison of the Platypus the Poison of the Red-Spotted Spider, N.S.W. Department of Public Health, Sydney, 1906, vii + 79 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Wall, A. J., Indian Snake Poisons, Their Nature and Effects, W. H. Allen, London, 1920, x + 171 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Worrell, E., Dangerous Snakes of Australia, First edn, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1952, 64 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Worrell, E., Song of the Snake, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1958, xii + 210 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Worrell, E., Dangerous Snakes of Australia and New Guinea, Fourth edn, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961, 68 pp. [ Details... ]

Book Sections

  • Acton, H. W. and Knowles, R., 'Section V: Snakes and Snake Poisoning', in W. Byam and R.G. Archibald (eds), The Practice of Medicine in the Tropics, vol. 1, Henry Frowde and Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1921, pp. 683-762. [ Details... ]
  • Bennett, G., 'Cahpter 13', in Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia: Being Observations Principally on the Animal and Vegetable Productions of New South Wales, New Zealand and Some of the Austral Islands, John Van Voorst, London, 1860, pp. 274-280. [ Details... ]
  • Brazenor, C. W., 'The Reptiles and Amphibians of Victoria', in Gawler O. (ed.), Victorian Year-Book 1934-35, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1936, pp. 25-38. [ Details... ]
  • Campbell, C. H., 'Chapter 10: The Effects of Snake Venoms and Their Neurotoxins on the Nervous System of Man and Animals', in Hornabrook R. W. (ed.), Topics on Tropical Neurology, Davis, Philadelphia, 1975, pp. 259-293. [ Details... ]
  • Cleland, J. B., 'Aborigines : Diseases and Medicines', in Australian Encyclopaedia, 1958, pp. 82-87. [ Details... ]
  • Cogger, H. G., 'Chapter 23: The Venomous Snakes of Australia and Melanesia', in W. Biicherl and E.E. Buckley (eds), Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Academic Press, London, pp. 35-77. [ Details... ]
  • Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, 'Australia's Venomous Snakes, the Distribution and Identification of the More Important Deadly Snakes and Treatment of Envenomation', in Garnet J. R. (ed.), Venomous Australian Animals Dangerous to Man, Melbourne, 1968, pp. 39-82. [ Details... ]
  • Cunningham, P., '[Title not recorded]', in Two Years in New South Wales, Second edn, vol. 1, Henry Colburn, London, 1827, pp. 313-320. [ Details... ]
  • Dawson, J., '[Title not recorded]', in Robertson G. (ed.), Australian Aborigines The Languages and Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, Melbourne, 1881, pp. 96-97. [ Details... ]
  • Held, G. J., 'The Papuas of Waropen, Martinus Nijoff', The Hague, 1957, p. 255. [ Details... ]
  • Landtman, G., in The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea, MacMillan, London, 1927, p. 226. [ Details... ]
  • Longham, H. A., in Snakes, the Australian Encyclopaedia, Volume 2, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1926, pp. 470-475. [ Details... ]
  • Lucas, A. H. S. and Le Souef, W. H. D., in The Animals of Australia. Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians, Whitcombe and Tombs, Melbourne, 1909, pp. 150-188. [ Details... ]
  • Martin, C. J., 'Snake-Poison and Snake-Bite', in Allbutt, T. C. (ed.), A System of Medicine, vol. 2, MacMillan, London, 1899, pp. 809-835. [ Details... ]
  • Martin, C. J. and Lamb, G., 'Snake-Poison and Snake-Bite', in Allbutt, T. C. and Rolleston, N. D. (eds), A System of Medicine, vol. 2, MacMillan, London, 1907, pp. 783-821. [ Details... ]
  • Mueller, A., 'Two Typhoid Epidemics. A Contribution to the Etiology andTreatment of Typhoid Fever', Whitehead and Co., Melbourne, 1898, p. 56. [ Details... ]
  • Nicols, A., in Zoological Notes on the Structure, Affinities, Habits, and Mental Faculties of Wild and Domestic Animals; with Anecdotes Concerning and Adventures Among Them; and Some Account of Their Fossil Representatives, L. Upcott Gill, London, 1883, pp. 7-8, 44-45. [ Details... ]
  • Palmer, E., 'The Cloncurry River', in Curr, E. M. (ed.), The Australian Race: Its Origin, Languages, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia, and the Routes By Which it Spread Itself Over the Continent, vol. 2, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1929, pp. 330-335. [ Details... ]
  • Taplin, G., 'From the Banks of the Murray River, Where it Enters Lake Alexandrina, to the Embouchure of That River and Lacapede Bay', in Curr, E. M. (ed.), The Australian Race: Its Origin, Languages, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia, and the Routes By Which it Spread Itself Over that Continent, vol. 2, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1886, pp. 242-271. [ Details... ]
  • Tench, W., in Sydney's First Four Years, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961, pp. 272-273. [ Details... ]
  • Tench, W., in Sydney's First Four Years, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Pharmacological Effects of Australian Snake Venoms', in E.E. Buckley and N. Porges (eds), Venoms, American Association for Advancement of Science, Washington, 1956, pp. 243-251. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Chapter 24: The Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Venoms of the Snakes of Australia and Oceania', in W. Bucherl and E.E. Buckley (eds), Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, vol. 2, Academic Press, New Yprk/London, 1971, pp. 79-101. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Chapter 25: The Pathology, Symptomatology, and Treatment of Snake Bite in Australia', in W. Bucherl and E.E. Buckley (eds), Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, vol. 2, Academic Press, New Yprk/London, 1971, pp. 103-113. [ Details... ]
  • Welsh, J. H., 'Acetylcholine in Snake Venoms', in F.E. Russell and P.R. Saunders (eds), Animal Toxins, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967, pp. 363-368. [ Details... ]
  • Werler, J. E. and Keegan, H. L., 'Venomous Snakes of the Pacific Area', in H.L. Keegan and W.V. Macfarlane (eds), Venomous and Poisonous Animals and Noxious Plants of the Pacific Region, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1963, pp. 219-325. [ Details... ]
  • Williams, F. E., in Papuans of the Trans-Fly, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1936, pp. 346-348. [ Details... ]
  • Zeller, E. A., 'Enzymes of Snake Venoms and Their Biological Significance', in F. F. Nora (ed.), Advances in Enzymology, vol. 8, Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1948, pp. 459-495. [ Details... ]
  • Zeller, E. A., 'Chapter 30: Enzymes as Essential Components of Bacterial and Animal Toxins', in J. B. Stunner and K. Myrback (eds), The Enzymes, vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, 1951, pp. 986-1013. [ Details... ]

Conference Papers

  • Agnew, J. W., 'Notes on the Poison of Venomous Snakes', in Pap. Proceedings of the Society Tasm., 1864, pp. 9-13. [ Details... ]
  • Huxtable, L. R., 'Snake-bite in Australia - Recent Statistics and a Review of Recent Observations', in L.R. Huxtable (ed.), Intercolonial Medical Congress of Australasia. Transactions of the Third Session Held in Sydney, New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1893, pp. 138-154. [ Details... ]
  • Huxtable, L. R., 'Transactions of the Third Session, Held in Sydney, New South Wales, September 1892', in Huxtable. L. R. (ed.), Intercolonial Medical Congress of Australasia, Government Printer, ydney, 1893, p. 63. [ Details... ]
  • Morgan, F. G., 'Preparation of Curative Sera Against Venom of Certain Australian Snakes', in Archdall, M. (ed.), Australasian Medical Congress, Transactions of the Third Session Sydney, Government Printer, Sydney, 1930, pp. 466-469. [ Details... ]
  • Thwaites, J. S., 'Notes on Two Cases of Snake-Bite', in Intercolonial Medical Congress of Australasia; Transactions of Second Session, Melbourne January 1889, Stillwell & Co., Melbourne, 1891, pp. 945-946. [ Details... ]

Journal Articles

  • 'Review: The New Treatment of Snake-bite With Plain Directions For Injecting, by G.B. Halford', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, pp. 189-191. [ Details... ]
  • 'Important Cures of Snake-bite', British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp. 104-105. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake Bites', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 4, 1859, pp. 236-238. [ Details... ]
  • '[Title not recorded]', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 5, 1860, p. 159. [ Details... ]
  • 'Deat from Snake Bite', Medical Record of Australia, vol. 2, 1862, pp. 10-11. [ Details... ]
  • 'Practical Test of Snake-Bite Antidote', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 9, 1864, p. 381. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Poison of the Cobra', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 12, 1867, pp. 153-155. [ Details... ]
  • 'Novel Remedy For Snake Bite', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 12, 1867, p. 31. [ Details... ]
  • 'Poison of the Cobra-Di-Capella', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1867, p. 124. [ Details... ]
  • 'The fatal Snake-Bite at Melbourne', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1868, pp. 99-100. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Melbourne Snake Bite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1868, p. 219. [ Details... ]
  • '[Title not recorded]', Calcutta Journal of Medicine, vol. 1, 1868, p. 121. [ Details... ]
  • 'Poisoning from Snakebites', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1868, p. 47. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Reputed Cure For Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 98-99. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake-Bites', Lancet, vol. 1, 1869, p. 215. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Ammonia Treatment of Snake-Bite', Lancet, vol. 2, 1869, p. 289. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford and the Injection of Ammonia Into the Veins in Opium Poisoning', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 201-202. [ Details... ]
  • 'Bibron's Antidote in Snake Poisoning', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 88. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 94. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Lancet on Professor Halford's Treatment of Snake-Bites', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 98. [ Details... ]
  • 'Injection of Ammonia Into the Veins in Snake Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 112. [ Details... ]
  • 'Proceedings of the Victorian Medical Association', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 177. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford on the Treatment of Snake-Poisoning', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 251. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Ammonia Treatment of Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 255-256. [ Details... ]
  • 'Ammoniacal Injection in Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 260. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford and the Treatment of Snake-Poison', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 264-265. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Late Case of Snake Bite at Talbot', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 276. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford's Treatment of Snakebite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 123. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford's Treatment of Snakebite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 227. [ Details... ]
  • 'New Books With Short Critiques', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1869, p. 616. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake Poisoning', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 75-76. [ Details... ]
  • 'Proceedings of the Victorian Medical Association', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 55-56. [ Details... ]
  • 'Death from Snake Bite After Injection of Ammonia Into a Vein', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 56. [ Details... ]
  • 'Treatment of Snake-bites', British Medical Journal, vol. 2, 1869, p. 684. [ Details... ]
  • 'Treatment of Snake-bites', British Medical Journal, vol. 2, 1869, p. 422. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Blood in Snake Poisoning', British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1869, p. 81. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Medical Society and Dr. Halford's Treatment of Snake-Bites', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, p. 76. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford's Treatment of Snake-Bite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1870, p. 379. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford and His Claims', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, pp. 103-104. [ Details... ]
  • 'Ammonia and Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 82. [ Details... ]
  • 'Mortality from Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 82. [ Details... ]
  • 'Death from Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 47. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Treatment of Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 29. [ Details... ]
  • 'The "Lancet", on Professor Halford's "Discoveries"', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, pp. 207-208. [ Details... ]
  • 'Important Case of Snake-Bite at Albury, N.S.W.', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 29. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Case of Snake-Bite at Talbot', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 8. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford's Treatment of Snake Bites', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 228. [ Details... ]
  • 'Death from Snake Poisoning - Failure of Venous Injection', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, pp. 220-221. [ Details... ]
  • 'Cure of Snake-Bite by Dr. Halford's Remedy', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1870, p. 457. [ Details... ]
  • '(Title not recorded)', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1870, p. 135. [ Details... ]
  • 'Ammonia in Treatment of Snake-Bites', British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1870, p. 123. [ Details... ]
  • 'Injection of Ammonia Into the Veins', British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1870, p. 254. [ Details... ]
  • 'The Ammonia Cure For Snake-bite', British Medical Journal, vol. 2, 1870, p. 224. [ Details... ]
  • 'Cure of Snake Bite by Professor Halford's Plan of Treatment', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 83. [ Details... ]
  • '[Title not recorded]', British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1871, p. 125. [ Details... ]
  • 'Death from Snake-Poisoning - Failure of Venous Injection', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1871, p. 258. [ Details... ]
  • 'Treatment of Snake-Bite by Ammonia', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 6, 1871, p. 220. [ Details... ]
  • 'Evil Consequences of Ammoniacal Injection', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, pp. 239-240. [ Details... ]
  • 'Three Deaths from Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, p. 229. [ Details... ]
  • '[Title not recorded]', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, p. 60. [ Details... ]
  • 'The "Lancet" on Ammoniacal Injection in Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, pp. 139-140. [ Details... ]
  • 'Cure of Snake-Bite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1871, p. 105. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, p. 32. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake-bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, p. 10. [ Details... ]
  • 'More Snake-Bite Cures by Halford's Remedy', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1871, p. 268. [ Details... ]
  • 'Snake Poison in Australia', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1871, p. 346. [ Details... ]
  • 'Professor Halford and the Treatment of Snake-Bite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1871, pp. 161-162. [ Details... ]
  • 'Medical News', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 2, 1871, p. 28. [ Details... ]
  • 'Ammonia Injection For Snake-bite', British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1871, pp. 482-483. [ Details... ]
  • '[Title not recorded]', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 3, 1871, pp. 31-32. [ Details... ]
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  • 'Local Topics', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 17, 1872, p. 31. [ Details... ]
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  • 'The Injection of Ammonia in Snake-Bite', Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 1, 1876, p. 53. [ Details... ]
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  • Richards, V., 'Report on the Snake Bite Cases Which Occurred in Bengal, Eehar, Orissa, Assam, Cachar Etc., During the Year 1873-74', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1876, pp. 96-100. [ Details... ]
  • Richards, V., 'A Fatal Case of Snake-Bite; Intravenous Injection of Ammonia. Remarks on the Application of Ligature in Snake Bite', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1876, pp. 320-321. [ Details... ]
  • Rigby, G. O., 'Ammoniacal Injection in Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, p. 6. [ Details... ]
  • Rigby, G. O., 'Ammoniacal Injection in Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 2, 1870, pp. 7-8. [ Details... ]
  • Ripon, 'Strychnine in Snakebite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 12, 1893, p. 27. [ Details... ]
  • Rollison, J. W., 'Fatal Case of Tiger-Snake (Notechis Scutatus) Bite', Med. Scient. Archs Adelaide Hosp., vol. 7, 1928, pp. 18-20. [ Details... ]
  • Rowlands, J.B., Mastaglia, F.L., Kakulas, B.A. and Hainsworth, D., 'Clinical and Pathological Aspects of a Fatal Case of Mulga (Pseudechis Australis) Snakebite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1969, pp. 226-229. [ Details... ]
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  • Schiefenhovel, W., 'Snakebite by Aspidomorphus Muelleri', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1969, pp. 516-517. [ Details... ]
  • Scott, W., 'Professor Halford's Intra-Venous Injection of Ammonia', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 20, 1875, pp. 95-97. [ Details... ]
  • Seddon, H. D., 'Snakebite in a Cat by a Five-Ringed Snake (Demansia Modesta)', Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 50, 1974, pp. 326-327. [ Details... ]
  • Serventy, V. and Raymond, R., 'Snakebite', Australia's Wildlife Heritage, vol. 3, 1974, pp. 1388-1391. [ Details... ]
  • Serventy, V. and Raymond, R., 'Snakes of the Wetlands', Australia's Wildlife Heritage, vol. 4, 1974, pp. 1569-1575. [ Details... ]
  • Silberberg, F. G., 'Tiger-Snake Venom : Attempted Resuscitation in Rabbits', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1954, pp. 139-141. [ Details... ]
  • Skinner, D. and Mueller, A., 'A Remarkable Case of Death from Snakebite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 12, 1893, pp. 74-78. [ Details... ]
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  • Smith, T. E., 'Strychnine in Snakebite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 12, 1893, pp. 119-120. [ Details... ]
  • Steinbeck, A. W., 'Nephrotic Syndrome Developing After Snake-Bite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1960, pp. 543-545. [ Details... ]
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  • Stocker, H., 'Bite by a Tiger Snake Treated With Strychnine - Recovery', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1891, p. 90. [ Details... ]
  • Strangman, T. H., 'Fatal Case of Snakebite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 28, 1909, pp. 312-313. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., Coulter, A. R. and Harris, R. D., 'The Rationalization of First Aid Measeures for Elapid Snake Bite', Lancet, vol. 1, 1979, pp. 183-186. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., 'Venomous Australian Creatures: The Action of Their Toxins and the Care of the Envenomated Patient', Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 4, 1974, pp. 316-328. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., 'Treatment of Snake Bite in Australia Some Observations and Recommendations', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1975, pp. 30-32. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., 'Concern Over Choice of Antivenom For 'False King Brown Snake' Bites and a Plea For a Name Change', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 170, 1999, p. 187. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., 'A Life-Threatening Anaphylactoid Reaction to Polyvalent Antivenom Despite Pretreatment', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 170, 1999, p. 92. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K. and Duncan, A. W., 'New First Aid Measures of Envenomation: With Special Reference to Bites by the Sydney Funnelweb Spider (Atrax robustus)', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1980, pp. 378-379. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K. and King, K., 'Management of Snake Bite in Australia', Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia Monograph Series, vol. 1, 1991. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K. and Leonard, R. L., 'Snake Bite Deaths in Australia 1992-1994 and a Management Update', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 163, 1995, pp. 616-618. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., Coulter, A. R., Broad, A. J., Hilton, J. M. M. and Lane, L. H. D., 'Human Snake Bite Victims: The Successful Detection of Circulating Snake Venom by Radioimmunoassay', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1975, pp. 27-29. [ Details... ]
  • Sutherland, S. K., Coulter, A. R., Harris, R. D., Lovering, K. E. and Roberts, I.D., 'A Study of the Major Australian Snake Venoms in the Monkey (Maccaca Fascicularis). 1: The Movement of Injected Venom, Methods which Retard this Movement, and the Response to Antivenoms', Pathology, vol. 13, 1981, pp. 13-27. [ Details... ]
  • Swaroop, S. and Grab, B., 'Snakebite Mortality in the World', Bulletin of the World Health Organization., vol. 10, 1954, pp. 35-37. [ Details... ]
  • Symons, H. S., 'Anaphylactic Shock and Subsequent Dementia Following the Administration of Tiger-Snake Antivenene', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1960, pp. 1010-1011. [ Details... ]
  • Taylor, E., 'Snake Bite and Pituitrin', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1942, p. 271. [ Details... ]
  • Thomas, D. J., 'Professor Halford and the Medical Society', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 12, 1867, pp. 219-220. [ Details... ]
  • Thomas, D. J., '(Title not recorded)', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 15, 1870, p. 174. [ Details... ]
  • Thomas, D. J., 'Case of Cobra-Bite Treated by Hypodermic Injection of Strychnine - Recovery', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 28, 1893, pp. 338-340. [ Details... ]
  • Thomas, D. J., 'Case of Cobra-Bite Treated by Hypodermic Injection of Strychnine - Recovery', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 13, 1894, pp. 26-27. [ Details... ]
  • Thompson, L. G., 'Notes on Australian Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 5, 1886, p. 139. [ Details... ]
  • Thon, G., 'A Typical Case of Snake Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, pp. 122-123. [ Details... ]
  • Tibballs, J., 'Diagnosis and Treatment of Confirmed and Suspected Snake Bite: Implications from an Analysis of 46 Paediatric Cases', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 156, 1992, pp. 270-274. [ Details... ]
  • Tibballs, J., 'Premedication For Snake Antivenom', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 160, 1994, pp. 4-7. [ Details... ]
  • Tibballs, J., Hawdon, G. M., Pincus, S. J. and Winkel, K. D., 'Sever Tiger Snake Envenomation in a Wilderness Environment', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 169, 1998, pp. 228-229. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., 'A Preliminary Note on the Serum-Therapy of Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 21, 1902, pp. 177-181. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., 'A Preliminary Note on the Serum-Therapy of Snake-Bite', Veterinarian (London), vol. 75, 1902, pp. 637-642. [ Details... ]
  • Tisdall, H. T. and Sewell, J. E., 'Treatment With Antivenine Twenty-Four Hours After a Bite by a Tiger Snake', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1931, pp. 604-605. [ Details... ]
  • Treloar, R. N., 'Case of Snakebite Treated by Strychnine', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1892, p. 198. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Comparison of Haemolysis and Liberation of Histamine by Two Australian Snake Venoms', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 17, 1939, pp. 145-155. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'The Effect of Poly-Vinyl-Pyrollidone and Tetra-Hydro-Aminoacridine on the Mortality and Survival Time of Mice Injected With Snake Venom', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1956, pp. 8-11. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Detection of Snake Venom in Tissue', Clinical Toxicology, vol. 3, 1970, pp. 445-455. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Day, A. J., 'The Influence of Heparin on the Toxicity of Australian Snake Venom', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 26, 1948, pp. 37-43. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Day, A. J., 'New Therapy of Ophidiasis', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 26, 1948, pp. 153-161. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Day, A. J., 'Tissue Injury by Australian Black Snake Venom and 'Bound' Histamine', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 27, 1949, pp. 385-401. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Khaled, L., 'Changing Antigenic Character of Venom', Journal of the Formosan Medical Association (Taiwan yi zhi), vol. 71, 1972, pp. 431-434. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Khaled, L., 'Changes in Antigenic Character of Fresh Australian Snake Venom Upon Aging', Toxicon, vol. 11, 1973, pp. 55-58. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Morris, C. W., 'The Inhibitory Effect of Salicylate on the Release of Histamine by Venom in the Presence of Blood', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 37, 1959, pp. 567-572. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Rawlinson, P., 'Diagnosis of Snake Bite', Memorias do Instituto Butantan, vol. 33, 1966, pp. 235-240. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Rawlinson, P., 'Immunological Diagnosis of Type of Snake in Snake-Bite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1967, pp. 111-113. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Thomas, W. L., 'Some Effects of Material Obtained from Snake Bite Area', Toxicon, vol. 7, 1969, pp. 243-244. [ Details... ]
  • Trinca, G. F., 'The Treatment of Snakebite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1963, p. 833. [ Details... ]
  • Trinca, G. F., 'The Treatment of Snakebite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1963, pp. 275-280. [ Details... ]
  • Trinca, J. C., 'Report of Recovery from Taipan Bite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1969, pp. 514-516. [ Details... ]
  • Tu, A. T. and Toom, P. A., 'The Presence of a L-Leucyl-(3-Naphtylamide Hydrolyzing Enzyme in Snake Venoms', Experientia, vol. 23, 1967, pp. 439-440. [ Details... ]
  • Tu, A. T. and Toom, P. M., 'Hydrolysis of Peptides by Snake Venoms of Australia and New Guinea', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 45, 1967, pp. 561-567. [ Details... ]
  • Tu, A. T., Chua, A., and James, G. P., 'Peptidase Activities of Snake Venoms', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 15, 1965, pp. 517-523. [ Details... ]
  • Turner, A.J., 'M. Roux and Snake Venom', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 13, 1894, p. 426. [ Details... ]
  • Vaughan, J. C., 'A Case of Snakebite Treated by Hypodermic Injection of Sulphate of Strychnia -Recovery', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 12, 1893, pp. 385-386. [ Details... ]
  • Vaughan, J. C., 'A Case of Snakebite Treated by Hypodermic Injection of Sulphate of Strychnia -Recovery', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 28, 1893, pp. 267-268. [ Details... ]
  • Velarde, C. F. and Miravent, J., 'Action Des Venins De Serpents Sur L'Uterus Et L'Intestin Isoles Du Cobaye', C. r. Seanc. Soc. Biol. (Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales?), vol. 83, 1920, pp. 1359-1360. [ Details... ]
  • Voss, F. H. V., 'Case of Snake-Bite - Recovery', Intercolon J. Med. Surg., vol. 1, 1894-5, pp. 172-175. [ Details... ]
  • Wallace, I., 'Effects of Tiger Snake Bite', Vict. Nat., vol. 70, 1954, pp. 227-228. [ Details... ]
  • Walsh, J. H. T., '(Review of) on Snake-Poison : Its Action and Its Antidote by A.M. Mueller, Bruck, Sydney', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 28, 1893, pp. 323-324. [ Details... ]
  • Watkins, A., 'Treatment of Snake Bite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1927, p. 665. [ Details... ]
  • Weatherly, A. J., 'Snakebite - Treatment by Strychnine - Recovery', Indian Medical Gazette, vol. 29, 1894, p. 220. [ Details... ]
  • Weatherly, A. J., 'Snakebite - Treatment by Strychnine - Recovery', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 13, 1894, p. 323. [ Details... ]
  • Webb, J. H., 'Treatment of Snake-Bite', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 17, 1872, pp. 154-159. [ Details... ]
  • Webb, J. H., 'The Ammonia Treatment', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 21, 1876, pp. 159-165. [ Details... ]
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  • Weekes, C. J., 'Strychnine in Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, p. 148. [ Details... ]
  • Welsh, D. A. and Chapman, H. G., 'Concerning Snake Venom', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 29, 1910, pp. 344-349. [ Details... ]
  • Wickramaratna, J. C., Fry, B. G., Loiacono, R. E., Aguilar, M-I., Alewood, P. F. and Hodgson, W. C., 'Isolation and Characterisation at Cholinergic Nicotinic Receptors of a Neurotoxin from Venom of the Acanthophis Sp. Seram Death Adder', Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 68, 2004, pp. 383-394. [ Details... ]
  • Wiener, S., 'Venom Yields and Toxicity of the Venoms of Male and Female Tiger Snakes', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1960, pp. 740-741. [ Details... ]
  • Wiener, S., 'Active Immunization of Man Against the Venom of the Australian Tiger Snake (Notechis Scutatus)', The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 9, 1960, pp. 284-292. [ Details... ]
  • Wiener, S., 'Snake Bite in a Subject Actively Immunized Against Snake Venom', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1961, pp. 658-659. [ Details... ]
  • Wiener, S., 'Red Back Spider in Australia: an Analysis of 167 Cases', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1961, pp. 44-49. [ Details... ]
  • Wigan, G., 'Strychnine in Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, pp. 179-180. [ Details... ]
  • Wilkinson, J. F., 'Case of Snake Bite', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 9, N.S., 1887, pp. 225-226. [ Details... ]
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  • Woods, F. H., 'Five Cases of Snake-Bite', N.S.W. Med. Gaz., vol. 4, 1874, pp. 129-132. [ Details... ]
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  • Yeatman, J. W., 'Strychnine in Snakebite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, p. 125. [ Details... ]
  • Zeller, E. A., 'Uber Das Vorkommen and Die Natur Der Cholinesterase Der Schlangengifte', Experientia, vol. 3, 1947, pp. 375-376. [ Details... ]
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  • Zeller, E. A., 'Uber Phosphatasen II Uber Eine Neue. Adenosintriphosphatase', Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 33, 1950, pp. 821-833. [ Details... ]
  • Zeller, E. A., 'The Formation of Pyrophosphate from Adenosine Triphosphate in the Presence of Snake Venom', Archives of Biochemistry, vol. 28, 1950, pp. 138-139. [ Details... ]

Newspaper Articles

  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 30 October, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 14 October 1804, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 21 October, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 2 December 1804, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 21 October 1804, 2-3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 3 March 1805, 1 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 9 March 1806. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 19 January 1806, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 2 August 1807, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 22 February 1807, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 18 December 1808, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 20 November 1808, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 28 May 1809, 1 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 22 October 1809, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Hobart Town Gazette, and Southern Reporter, 2 January 1817, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 3 April 1819, 2-3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Hobart Town Gazette, and Southern Reporter, 11 December 1819, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Hobart Town Gazette, and Southern Reporter, 2 February 1819, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Hobart Town Gazette, and Southern Reporter, 24 July 1819, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Hobart Town Gazette, and Southern Reporter, 27 February 1819, 1 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 9 December 1824, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 2 December 1826, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 4 November 1826, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 21 April 1829, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Snake Bites, 30 Spetember 1862, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Snake Poisoning, The Age, 11 December 1863, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Successful Treatment of Snake-Bite, The Argus, 2 December 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Successful Treatment of Snake-Bite, The Argus, 2 December 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Argus, 18 November 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Argus, 17 November 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Snake Poisoning, The Age, 11 December 1868, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Age, March 9 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Snake Bites, The Australasian, 29 February 1868, 264 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Argus, 1 February 1869, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Australasian, 27 May 1871, 658 pp. [ Details... ]
  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 31 October 1874, 553 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Age, March 18 1875, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Argus, 19 March 1875, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • The Medical Society and the Ammonia Remedy, The Australasian, 27 March 1875, 401 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Daily Telegraph, Melbourne, 7 April 1876, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Daily Telegraph, Melbourne, 19 March 1876, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • [Title not recorded], The Daily Telegraph, Melbourne, 8 April 1876, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Ammonia Injection in Snake Poisoning, The Age, 8 April 1876, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • The New Cure For Snakebite, The Argus, 22 January 1897, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • The New Snakebite Treatment, The Argus, 1897, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bancroft, J., Poisonous Animals, No. 2: Snakes, Queensland Daily Guardian, 21 february 1867, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bennett, G., Observations on the Snakes of New South Wales, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 June 1862, 8 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Berncastle, J., The Cure of Snake Bites, The Age, 2 January 1869, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bland, W., [Title not recorded], Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 11 November 1826, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bland, W., [Title not recorded], Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 28 October 1826, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bowen and C. Q., The New Snakebite Treatment, The Argus, 11 January 1897, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Snakes, The Sydney Morning Herald, 25 February 1887, 9 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Our Venomous Snakes Some New and Interesting Information, Evening News, 5 October 1907, 13 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Burnell, H. C., On Snake Bites, The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 October 1862, 8 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Campbell, F., More About Snake Bites, The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 October 1862, 8 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Campbell, F., Snake Bites, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 October 1862, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Crowther, W. E. L. H., Mr. Charles Underwood and His Antidote, With Some Observations on Snake Bite in Tasmania, The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1956, 83-90 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Francis, H & Co, The New Treatment of Snakebite, The Argus, 13 January, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Francis, H., The New Method of Treating Snake-Bite, The Argus, 8 january 1987, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Grimwade, E. N., New Snakebite Treatment, The Argus, 14 January 1897, 7 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., The New Remedy For Snake-Poisoning, The Argus, 21 December 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., Professor Halford's Experiment on Snake-Poisoning, The Argus, 7 November 1868, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., The New Remedy For Snake-Poisoning, The Argus, 31 December 1868, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., Liquid Ammonia as a Snake-Poison Antidote, The Argus, 18 November 1868, 7 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., Professor Halford on the Treatment of Snake-Bite, The Argus, 17 November 1869, 1 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., Cure of Snake-Bite by the Injection of Ammonia, The Argus, 6 May 1870, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., Snake Poison and Injection of Ammonia, The Argus, 18 January 1871, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., The Uses of Ammonia in Snake-Bite, The Daily Telegraph, 23 May 1871, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., Snake-Bite Cures, The Argus, 14 March 1892, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., The New Cure For Snakebite, The Argus, 15 January 1897, 7 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Hodgkinson, C., Poisons of Snakes, The Age, 15 December 1868, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., Snakes and Snake-Bite, The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 October 1862, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., Remedies For Snake-Poisoning, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 May 1868, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • L. E. L, (Title not recorded), Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 4 November 1826, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • L. E. L., (Title not recorded), Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 22 November 1826, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • McCrae, W., Snake Poison and Its Antidotes, The Argus, 12 November 1861, 5 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Milford, H., Snakes, The Evening News, 5 November 1907, 6 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Mueller, A., Strychnine For Snakebite, The Ovens and Murray Advertiser, 11 February 1888, 15 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Richards, V., Snake Poison. Mr. Wooldridge and the Medical Society, The Daily Telegraph, 23 September 1876, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Richards, V., The Medical Society and the Intravenous Injection of Ammonia in Snake-Poisoning, The Daily Telegraph, 26 August 1876, 3 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Smith, C. J., Snake Poison and Its Antidote, Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, 51 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Sturt, E. P. S., The Snake-Bite at Seymour, The Argus, 5 February 1869, 7 pp. [ Details... ]
  • The Central Board of Health, [Title not recorded], The Argus, 4 February 1888, 9 pp. [ Details... ]
  • The Medical Society of Victoria, [Title not recorded], The Daily Telegraph, Melbourne, 21 October 1869, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Willoughby, H., The Strychnine Cure For Snake-Bite, The Argus, 12 March 1892, 4 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Willoughby, H., (Title not recorded), The Argus, 15 March 1892, 5 pp. [ Details... ]

Pamphlets

  • Australian Museum, 'Australian Snakes, Leaflet', vol. 59, Government Printer, Sydney, 1963, p. 10. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., 'The New Treatment of Snake-Bite with Plain Directions for Injecting', Stillwell & Knight, Melbourne, 1869, p. 16. [ Details... ]

Reports

  • Cleland, J. B., Alleged Snake-Bite Remedies, Report of the Director-General of Public Health New South Wales, For the Year Ended 31st December, 1913, Government Printer, Sydney, 1915, 250 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Commonwealth Department Of Health, The Treatment of Snake-Bite in Australia, Government Printers, Melbourne, 7 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., Notebook Volume 4, Mitchell Library, Sydney, 1872c. [ Details... ]

Reviews

  • Hawdon, G. and Winkel, K., Review of Could This Be Snake Bite?, Australian Family Physician, vol. 26, 1997, pp. 1386-1391. [ Details... ]

Online Resources


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Prepared by: Annette Alafaci
Created: 24 September 2004
Modified: 17 August 2005

Published by Australian Venom Research Unit, 22 July 2004
Comments, questions, corrections and additions: mail@avru.org
Updated: 25 August 2007
http://www.avru.org/compendium/biogs/A000084b.htm

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