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Death adders

Family: Elapidae, Genus: Acanthophis
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Snake

Death adders are found throughout most of Australia and in Irian Jiya / West Papua. Three major species have been identified: Acanthophis praelongus or the northern death adder (found north of the Tropic of Capricorn), A. pyrrhus (inhabits desert regions of central and Western Australia), and A. antarcticus (found in the rest of Australia, except Victoria and Tasmania). Death adders are mainly active at night.

Unlike most other snakes, death adders will not necessarily retreat when humans approach. This makes them more easily trodden upon or disturbed by the unwary. However, they are often less likely than other venomous snakes to strike unless actually touched , but great caution is still advised.


Details

Death adders are readily identified by their short squat appearance. The head is broad and triangular, like that of a viper. The body is short and thick and the tail thinner and distinct from the body. Coloration is variable from region to region, but most death adders are banded to some degree. Their average length is approximately 0.65m and the maximum recorded length is 1.1m. The fangs are of death adder again resemble those of the vipersare quite - they are long (6-8mm) and are more mobile than those of other Australian venomous snakes. Their pupils are elliptical.

Prior to the introduction of antivenom, it is said that around 50% of death adder envenomations were fatal. Today, effective bites still result in paralysis which may be fatal. The average venom output is around 85mg with a maximum recorded output of 235mg. Death adder venom contains a post-synaptic neurotoxin, with negligible coagulant or myolytic activity. Although venom from some species may have more myotoxicity than others.

Death adders are ambush predators, who conceal themselves in leaves, sand or gravel. They then twitch the ends of their tails to attract prey. Their prey consists of frogs, birds, lizards, mice and rats.

 
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Published Resources

Books

  • Bray, J. S., Sketches, Drawings, Notes, Newspaper Cuttings, Mitchell Library, Sydney, 1893. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Sketches, vol. 3, Mitchell Library, Sydney, c1891-1895. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Sketches, vol. 7, Mitchell Library, Sydney, c1891-1895. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Sketches, vol. 6, Mitchell Library, Sydney, c1891-1895. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Sketches, vol. 5, Cassell, Sydney, c1891-1895. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Sketches, vol. 4, Mitchell Library, Sydney, c1891-1895. [ Details... ]
  • Cogger, H. G., Snakes, Encyclopaedia of Papua and New Guinea, vol. 2, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1972. [ Details... ]
  • Minton, S. A. and Minton, M. R., VenomousReptiles, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1971, 274 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Owner, F., Reptiles of Australia and New Zealand, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1970. [ Details... ]
  • Slater, K. R., A Guide to the Dangerous Snakes of Papua, First edn, Government Printer, Port Moresby, 1956, 18 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Slater, K. R., A Guide to the Dangerous Snakes of Papua, Second edn, Government Printer, Port Moresby, 1968, 22 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., Researches on Australian Venoms Snake-Bite, Snake-Venom and Antivenine the Poison of the Platypus the Poison of the Red-Spotted Spider, N.S.W. Department of Public Health, Sydney, 1906, vii + 79 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Waite, E. R., The Reptiles and Amphibians of South Australia, Editor: H. M. Hall, Government Printer, Adelaide, 1929, 270 pp. [ Details... ]

Book Sections

  • Bennett, G., in Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, Singapore, and China; Being the Journal of a Naturalist in Those Countries During 1832, 1833, and 1834, vol. 1, Richard Bentley, London, 1834, pp. 214-218. [ Details... ]
  • Bennett, G., 'Cahpter 13', in Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia: Being Observations Principally on the Animal and Vegetable Productions of New South Wales, New Zealand and Some of the Austral Islands, John Van Voorst, London, 1860, pp. 274-280. [ Details... ]
  • Boulenger, G. A., in Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History), Trustees British Museum, London, 1896, pp. 264-438. [ Details... ]
  • Cochran, D. M., in Poisonous Reptiles of the World: A Wartime Handbook, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, 1943, pp. 31-34. [ Details... ]
  • Cunningham, P., '[Title not recorded]', in Two Years in New South Wales, Second edn, vol. 1, Henry Colburn, London, 1827, pp. 313-320. [ Details... ]
  • Dawson, J., '[Title not recorded]', in Robertson G. (ed.), Australian Aborigines The Languages and Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, Melbourne, 1881, pp. 96-97. [ Details... ]
  • Ditmars, R. L., 'Chapter 14: The Poisonous Snakes of Australia', in Snakes of the World, MacMillan, New York, 1949, pp. 188-197. [ Details... ]
  • Martin, C. J. and Lamb, G., 'Snake-Poison and Snake-Bite', in Allbutt, T. C. and Rolleston, N. D. (eds), A System of Medicine, vol. 2, MacMillan, London, 1907, pp. 783-821. [ Details... ]
  • Shaw, G., 'The Antarctic Boa', in Naturalist's Miscellany, vol. 13, E. R. Nodder, London, 1802, p. Plate 535. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Pharmacological Effects of Australian Snake Venoms', in E.E. Buckley and N. Porges (eds), Venoms, American Association for Advancement of Science, Washington, 1956, pp. 243-251. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Chapter 24: The Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Venoms of the Snakes of Australia and Oceania', in W. Bucherl and E.E. Buckley (eds), Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, vol. 2, Academic Press, New Yprk/London, 1971, pp. 79-101. [ Details... ]
  • Vis, C. W. De, 'Appendix X: Report on Reptiles from British New Guinea', in Annual Report on British New Guinea From 4th September, 1888 To 30th June, 1889; With Map and Appendices, Government Printer, Brisbane, 1889, p. 62. [ Details... ]
  • Vis, C. W. De, 'Appendix IV: Reptiles of New Guinea', in Thomson, J. P. (ed.), British New Guinea, George Phillip and Son, London, 1892, pp. 273-282. [ Details... ]
  • Werler, J. E. and Keegan, H. L., 'Venomous Snakes of the Pacific Area', in H.L. Keegan and W.V. Macfarlane (eds), Venomous and Poisonous Animals and Noxious Plants of the Pacific Region, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1963, pp. 219-325. [ Details... ]
  • Zeller, E. A., 'Enzymes of Snake Venoms and Their Biological Significance', in F. F. Nora (ed.), Advances in Enzymology, vol. 8, Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1948, pp. 459-495. [ Details... ]

Conference Papers

  • Morgan, F. G., 'Preparation of Curative Sera Against Venom of Certain Australian Snakes', in Archdall, M. (ed.), Australasian Medical Congress, Transactions of the Third Session Sydney, Government Printer, Sydney, 1930, pp. 466-469. [ Details... ]

Conference Proceedings

  • Kellaway, C. H. (ed.), Some Observations on the Specificity of Immunization to Snake Venoms, Australasian Medical Congress, Transactions of the Third Session Sydney, Archdall, M., Government Printer, Sydney, 1930, 463-466 pp. [ Details... ]

Journal Articles

  • 'Proceedings of the Victorian Medical Association', Australian Medical Gazette, vol. 1, 1869, pp. 55-56. [ Details... ]
  • 'Strychnine in Snake-bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1891, pp. 89-90. [ Details... ]
  • 'Strychnine in Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, pp. 121, 126, 148-149, 180, 210, 243-244. [ Details... ]
  • 'Strychnine in Snake-bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1892, pp. 113-114, 137-138, 168-169, 423, 448-449. [ Details... ]
  • Bancroft, T. L., 'Some Further Observations on the Physiological Action of Snake Venom, Together With a Reference to the Strychnine Cure of Snakebite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 13, 1894, pp. 228-230. [ Details... ]
  • Bland, W., 'Bites of the Venomous Snakes of Australia', Australian Medical Journal, vol. 6, 1861, pp. 1-6. [ Details... ]
  • Boulenger, G. A., 'Description of a New Death-adder (Acanthophis) from Central Australia', Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, no. 7th S., 1898, p. 75. [ Details... ]
  • Byrne, J. O., 'Serpents in Australia', The Red Funnel, vol. 1, 1905, pp. 217-220. [ Details... ]
  • Calmette, A., 'Contribution a L'Etude Des Venins, Des Toxines Et Des Serums Antitoxiques', Annls Inst. Pasteur (Paris), vol. 9, 1895, pp. 225-251. [ Details... ]
  • Cambell, C. H., 'The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarcticus) the Effect of the Bite and Its Treatment', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1966, pp. 922-925. [ Details... ]
  • Campbell, A., 'A Case of Bite by Death Adder Treated With Strychnine', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, p. 169. [ Details... ]
  • Chisholm, E. C., 'The Principal Fauna of the Comboyne Plateau 1923-1925', The Australian Zoologist, vol. 4, 1925, pp. 54-74. [ Details... ]
  • Clatworthy, H., 'Case of Death-Adder Bite Treated Unsuccessfully With Strychnine', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, p. 168. [ Details... ]
  • Cogger, H. G., 'Snakes, Lizards and Chelonians', Aust. Mus. Mag., vol. 13, 1960, pp. 250-253. [ Details... ]
  • Cogger, H. G., 'Expedition to Karkar Island', Aust. Nat. Hist., vol. 15, 1966, pp. 212-215. [ Details... ]
  • Croll, G., 'Death from Strychnine Poisoning After Snake Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 32, 1912, p. 189. [ Details... ]
  • Denson, K. W. E., 'Coagulant and Anticoagulant Action of Snake Venoms', Toxicon, vol. 7, 1969, pp. 5-11. [ Details... ]
  • Doery, H. M., 'Purine Compounds in Snake Venoms', Nature, vol. 177, 1956, pp. 381-382. [ Details... ]
  • Doery, H. M. and Pearson, J. E., 'Haemolysins in Venoms of Australian Snakes Observations on the Haemolysins of the Venoms of Some Australian Snakes and the Separation of Phospholipase A from the Venom of Pseudechis Porphyriacus', The Biochemical Journal, vol. 78, 1961, pp. 820-827. [ Details... ]
  • Doery, H. M. and Pearson, J. E., 'Phospholipase B in Snake Venoms and Bee Venom', The Biochemical Journal, vol. 92, 1964, pp. 599-602. [ Details... ]
  • Duran-Reynals, F., 'A Spreading Factor in Certain Snake Venoms and Its Relation to Their Mode of Action', The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 69, 1939, pp. 69-81. [ Details... ]
  • Fairley, N. H., 'The Present Position of Snake Bite and the Snake Bitten in Australia', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 296-313. [ Details... ]
  • Fairley, N. H., 'The Dentition and Biting Mechanism of Australian Snakes', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 313-327. [ Details... ]
  • Fairley, N. H., 'Criteria For Determing the Efficacy of Ligature in Snake Bite. (the Subcutaneous-Intravenous Index)', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 377-394. [ Details... ]
  • Fairley, N. H., 'The Present Position of Snake Bite and the Snake Bitten in Australia', Bull. Antivenin. Inst. Am., vol. 3, 1929, pp. 65-77. [ Details... ]
  • Fairley, N. H. and Splatt, B., 'Venom Yields in Australian Poisonous Snakes', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 336-348. [ Details... ]
  • Flecker, H., 'Snake Bite in Practice', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1940, pp. 8-13. [ Details... ]
  • Forbes, H. F., 'Two Cases of Snake-Bite Treated With Strychnine', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, p. 141. [ Details... ]
  • Freeman, M. and Kellaway, C. H., 'The Venom Yields of Common Australian Poisonous Snakes in Captivity', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1934, pp. 373-377. [ Details... ]
  • Garde, H. C., 'Notes of Three Cases of Snake-Bite Treated by Subcutaneous Injections of Strychnine', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 9, 1890, p. 157. [ Details... ]
  • Green, D., 'Reptiles of the Outer North-Western Suburbs of Sydney', Herpetofauna, vol. 6, no. 2, 1973, pp. 2-5. [ Details... ]
  • Halford, G. B., 'Venomous Bites', Lancet, vol. 2, 1857, p. 181. [ Details... ]
  • Holden, H. F., 'The Absorption Spectra of Some Modified Snake Venoms', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 14, 1936, pp. 121-130. [ Details... ]
  • Hunt, C. A. W., 'Case of Death-Adder Bite in a Child, with Recovery', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 11, 1891, p. 78. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H. and Holden, H. F, 'The Peripheral Action of the Australian Snake Venoms I. The Curari-Like Action on Frogs', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 10, 1932, pp. 167-179. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'The Action of the Venoms of the Copper-Head (Denisouia Superba) and of the Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarcticus) or. the Coagulation of the Blood', The Medical Journal of Australia, 1929. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'Observations on the Certainly Lethal Dose of the Venom of the Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarcticus) For the Common Laboratory Animals', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 764-772. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'A Preliminary Note on the Venom of the Australian Copper-Head (Denisonia Superba): Its Toxic Effects in the Common Laboratory Animals', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 358-365. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'The Specificity of Active Immunity Against Snake Venoms', The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, vol. 33, 1930, pp. 157-173. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'Local Venesection in the Treatment of Snake Bite: An Experimental Study', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1930, pp. 351-360. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'Snake Venoms and Antitoxic Immunity', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1931, pp. 1-11. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'Venomous Land Snakes in Australia', Bull. Antivenin. Inst. Am., vol. 5, 1932, pp. 53-58. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'The Peripheral Action of Australian Snake Venoms 4. Action on Sensory Nerve Endings in Frogs', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 12, 1934, pp. 177-186. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., 'The Symptomatology and Treatment of the Bites of Australian Snakes', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1938, pp. 585-589. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H. and Eades, T., 'Field Notes on the Common Australian Venomous Snakes', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1929, pp. 249-257. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H. and Williams, F. E., 'Haemolysis by Australian Snake Venoms 2. Some Peculiarities in the Behaviour of the Haemolysis of Australian Snake Venom', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 11, 1933, pp. 81-94. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H. and Williams, F. E., 'Haemolysis by Australian Snake Venoms I, the Comparative Haemolytic Power of Australian Snake Venoms', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 11, 1933, pp. 75-80. [ Details... ]
  • Kellaway, C. H., Cherry, R. O. and Williams, F. E., 'The Peripheral Action of the Australian Snake Venoms 2. the Curari-Like Action in Mammals', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 10, 1932, pp. 181-194. [ Details... ]
  • Kinghorn, J. R., 'Some New Guinea Reptiles', Aust. Mus. Mag., vol. 8, 1943, pp. 112-117. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., 'On Snakes, Observed in the Neighbourhood of Sydney', Trans. Phil. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 1862-1865, 1866, pp. 34-60. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., 'On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray and Darling, Their Habits, Economy, and Geographical Distribution', Trans. Phil. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 1862-1865, 1866, pp. 1-33. [ Details... ]
  • Lacepede, 'Memoire Sur Plusieurs Animaux De La Nouvelle - Hollande Dont La Description N'a Pas Encore Ete Publiee', Annales du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. 4, 1804, pp. 184-211. [ Details... ]
  • Link, T., 'Der Einfluss Der Schlangengifte Auf Die Blutgerinnung 3. Mitteilung. Australische Giftschlangen, Z. Immunforsch. exp. Ther., 92 : 133-144. Abstracted in', Tropical Diseases Bulletin, vol. 35, 1938, pp. 430-431. [ Details... ]
  • Longman, H. A., 'Herpetological Notes', Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, vol. 11, 1937, pp. 165-168. [ Details... ]
  • Macleay, W., 'The Ophidians of the Chevert Expedition', Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 1877, vol. 2, 1878, pp. 33-41. [ Details... ]
  • McKay, W. J., 'The Osteology and Myology of the Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica)', Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 1889, vol. 4, 1890, pp. 893-986. [ Details... ]
  • McLoughlin, J., 'Notes on the Death Adder', N. Qd. Nat., vol. 27, 1958, p. 6. [ Details... ]
  • Morgan, F.G., '(Title not recorded)', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 27, 1933, pp. 25-26. [ Details... ]
  • Ogilby, J. D., 'Report on a Zoological Collection from British New Guinea. Part I. Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes', Records of the Australian Museum, vol. 1, 1890, pp. 89-101. [ Details... ]
  • Parry, L. D., 'Strychnine in Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1890, p. 60. [ Details... ]
  • Parry, L. D., 'Bite by a Death-Adder Successfully Treated With Strychnine', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 10, 1891, p. 167. [ Details... ]
  • Rawlinson, P. A., 'Reptiles of the Victorian. Mallee', Proceedings of the Society Victoria, vol. 79, 1966, pp. 605-619. [ Details... ]
  • Rayment, T., 'Snakes', Walkabout, vol. 10, January, 1944, pp. 10-13. [ Details... ]
  • Roberts, A., 'On the Structure and Function of the Poison Apparatus in Venomous Serpents, With a Description of Some of the Species Found in Australia', Sydney Mag. Sci. Art, vol. 2, 1859, pp. 50-59. [ Details... ]
  • Rosenberg, P., 'Effects of Venoms on the Squid Giant Axon', Toxicon, vol. 3, 1965, pp. 125-131. [ Details... ]
  • Serventy, V. and Raymond, R., 'Death Adders', Australia's Wildlife Heritage, vol. 5, 1974, pp. 2226-2231. [ Details... ]
  • Slater, K. R., 'A Brief Account of the Snakes of the Fort Moresby Area', Pagua New Guin. Scient. Soc. a. Rep. Proc., 1954, pp. 51-56. [ Details... ]
  • Snow, F., 'A Master Snake-Man', Walkabout, vol. 3, May, 1937, pp. 20-22. [ Details... ]
  • Storr, G. M., 'Some Aspects of the Geography of Australian Reptiles', Senckenbergiana biologica, vol. 45, 1964, pp. 577-589. [ Details... ]
  • Taylor, E., 'Snake Bite and Pituitrin', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, 1942, p. 271. [ Details... ]
  • Thomson, D. F. and Hosmer, W., 'A Preliminary Account of the Herpetology of the Great Sandy Desert of Central Western Australia. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Bindibu Expedition', Proceedings of the Society Victoria, vol. 77, 1963, pp. 217-236. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., 'A Preliminary Note on the Serum-Therapy of Snake-Bite', Veterinarian (London), vol. 75, 1902, pp. 637-642. [ Details... ]
  • Tidswell, F., 'A Preliminary Note on the Serum-Therapy of Snake-Bite', Australasian Medical Gazette, vol. 21, 1902, pp. 177-181. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R., 'Comparison of Haemolysis and Liberation of Histamine by Two Australian Snake Venoms', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 17, 1939, pp. 145-155. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Rawlinson, P., 'Immunological Diagnosis of Type of Snake in Snake-Bite', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1967, pp. 111-113. [ Details... ]
  • Trethewie, E. R. and Thomas, W. L., 'Some Effects of Material Obtained from Snake Bite Area', Toxicon, vol. 7, 1969, pp. 243-244. [ Details... ]
  • Trinca, J. C., Graydon, J. J., Covacevich, J. and Limpus, C., 'The Rough-Scaled Snake (Tropidechis Carinatus) a Dangerously Venomous', Australian Snake, The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, 1971, pp. 801-809. [ Details... ]
  • Tu, A. T. and Toom, P. M., 'Hydrolysis of Peptides by Snake Venoms of Australia and New Guinea', The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 45, 1967, pp. 561-567. [ Details... ]
  • Tu, A. T., Passey, R. B. and Tu, T., 'Proteolytic Enzyme Activities of Snake Venoms', Toxicon, vol. 4, 1966, pp. 59-60. [ Details... ]
  • Vis, C. W. De, 'Zoology of British New Guinea', Ann. Qd. Mus., vol. 2, 1892, pp. 1-12. [ Details... ]
  • Wickramaratna, J. C., Fry, B. G., Loiacono, R. E., Aguilar, M-I., Alewood, P. F. and Hodgson, W. C., 'Isolation and Characterisation at Cholinergic Nicotinic Receptors of a Neurotoxin from Venom of the Acanthophis Sp. Seram Death Adder', Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 68, 2004, pp. 383-394. [ Details... ]
  • Zeller, E. A., 'Uber Die Cholinesterase Der Schlangengifte). 5. Mitteilung Uber Die Biochemie Der Tierischen Gifte', Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 32, 1949, pp. 94-105. [ Details... ]

Newspaper Articles

  • (Title not recorded), The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 2 August 1807, 2 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bennett, G., Observations on the Snakes of New South Wales, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 June 1862, 8 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Snakes, The Sydney Morning Herald, 25 February 1887, 9 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Bray, J. S., Snakes, The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 February 1887, 8 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., The Reptiles of Australia Recent and Fossil, The Sydney Mail, 24 October 1874, 527 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Krefft, G., The Reptiles of Australia Recent and Fossil, New South Wales Advertiser, 21 November 1874, 649 pp. [ Details... ]

Pamphlets

  • Kellaway, C. H., 'Snakebite and Its Treatment. Health Bulletin', no. 16, Department of Health, Victoria, 1928, pp. 521-525. [ Details... ]

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Prepared by: Annette Alafaci
Created: 26 August 2004
Modified: 14 June 2006

Published by Australian Venom Research Unit, 22 July 2004
Comments, questions, corrections and additions: mail@avru.org
Updated: 25 August 2007
http://www.avru.org/compendium/biogs/A000025b.htm

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